The data we present consists in an inventory of exotic arthropods, potentially invasive, collected on exotic and mixed forests, as well disturbed native forest patches most of them not included in protected areas, on the Azores archipelago. The study was carried out between 2019 and 2020 in four islands: Corvo, Flores, Terceira and Santa Maria, where a total of 45 passive flight interception SLAM traps were deployed, during three to six consecutive months. This manuscript is the second contribution of the “SLAM Project - Long Term Ecological Study of the Impacts of Climate Change in the natural forest of Azores”. A total of 45 passive flight interception SLAM traps were deployed, during six consecutive months, collecting arthropods belonging to Arachnida, Diplopoda, Chilopoda and Insecta Classes. We collected a total of 21,175 specimens, belonging to 20 orders, 93 families and 249 species of arthropods. A total of 125 species are considered introduced, 89 native non-endemic and 35 endemic. We registered a total of 33 new records for one or more islands, of which five are new for Azores: Dieckmanniellus nitidulus (Gyllenhal, 1838), Gronops fasciatus Küster, 1851, Hadroplontus trimaculatus (Fabricius, 1775), Hypurus berandi (Perris, 1852) (all Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel, 1890 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). This publication remarks the importance of disturbed native forest patches and exotic vegetation areas as potential reservoirs of exotic potentially invasive arthropods and also accommodating some rare relict endemic arthropod species
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Borges P A V, Lamelas-López L, Ros-Prieto A (2022): A survey of exotic arthropods in disturbed Azorean forest habitats using SLAM traps. v1.6. Universidade dos Açores. Dataset/Samplingevent. http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=pribes_exotic_arthropods&v=1.6
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Corvo, Flores, Terceira and Santa Maria islands, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Coordinates: Corvo: 39°42'6.75''N Latitude; 31°6'6''W Longitude Flores: 39°26'37''N Latitude; 31°11'57''W Longitude Terceira: 38°38'16.8''N and 38°48'50.4''N Latitude; 27°23'38.4''W and 27°0'54''W Longitude Santa Maria: 36°58'29''N Latitude; 25°05'41''W Longitude
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [36.906, -31.295], North East [39.741, -24.95]|
The following Classes and Orders are covered: Arachnida: Araneae; Opiliones; Pseudoscorpiones Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha; Lithobiomorpha; Scolopendromorpha; Scutigeromorpha Diplopoda: Julida; Polydesmida Insecta: Archaeognatha; Blattodea; Coleoptera; Dermaptera; Hemiptera; Hymenoptera; Isoptera; Neuroptera; Orthoptera; Phasmatodea; Psocodea; Thysanoptera; Trichoptera.
|Start Date / End Date||2019-05-15 / 2020-09-16|
The data we present are part of the long-term project SLAM (Long Term Ecological Study of the Impacts of Climate Change in the natural forest of Azores) that started in 2012 aiming to understand the impact of biodiversity erosion drivers on Azorean native forests (Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal). Passive flight interception SLAM traps (Sea, Land and Air Malaise trap) are being used to sample native forest plots in several Azorean islands (Costa & Borges 2021). Part of the data here described was already used by Tsafack et al. (2021) to compare the diversity of endemic, native non-endemic, and exotic species are in native vs. exotic forests in Terceira island.
|Title||A survey of exotic arthropods in disturbed Azorean forest habitats using SLAM traps|
|Funding||Portuguese National Funds, through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, within the project UID/BIA/00329/2013-2023 Direcção Regional do Ambiente - PRIBES (LIFE17 IPE/PT/000010) (2019-2020). Direcção Regional do Ambiente – LIFE-BETTLES (LIFE18 NAT_PT_000864) (2020-2024) AZORESBIOPORTAL –PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072) (2019-2022) The database management and Open Access was funded by the project “MACRISK-Trait-based prediction of extinction risk and invasiveness for Northern Macaronesian arthropods” Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia FCT - PTDC/BIA-CBI/0625/2021 (2022-2024)|
|Study Area Description||The study area comprises Corvo, Flores, Terceira and Santa Maria islands, in the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic, roughly at 38°43'21''N 27°13'14''W and 38°27'30''N 28°19'22''W respectively. The climate is temperate oceanic, with regular and abundant rainfall, high levels of relative humidity and persistent winds, mainly during the winter and autumn seasons.|
|Design Description||Passive flight interception SLAM traps (Sea, Land and Air Malaise trap) were used to sample the plots in the four study islands, with one trap being setup at each plot. Trap size is of approximately 110 x 110 x 110 cm. The trap functioning consist on that the intercepted arthropods crawl up the mesh and then fall inside the sampling recipient, which is filled with propylene glycol (pure 1,2-PROPANODIOL) (Borges et al, 2017). Although this protocol was originally developed to sample flying arthropods, by working as an extension of the tree, non-flying species can also crawl into the trap (Borges et al, 2017), enhancing the range of groups that can be sampled by this technique. Recent studies have used this sampling technique to study diversity and abundance variations in the communities of arthropod on Azorean native areas (Matthews et al, 2019, Borges et al, 2020). The traps samples were collected every three or six months.|
The personnel involved in the project:
A total of 45 passive flight interception SLAM traps (Sea, Land and Air Malaise trap) were used to sample the plots in the four study islands, with one trap being setup at each plot. Trap size is of approximately 110 x 110 x 110 cm. The trap functioning consist on that the intercepted arthropods crawl up the mesh and then fall inside the sampling recipient, which is filled with propylene glycol (pure 1,2-PROPANODIOL) (Borges et al, 2017). A total of 19 SLAM traps were deployed in exotic forest areas, 8 on native forest patches, and 18 on mixed forests. The traps samples were collected every three or six months.
|Study Extent||The study was conducted in four islands of the Azores archipelago, Corvo, Flores, Terceira and Santa Maria islands. The sampled habitats included exotic species dominated forests, mixed forests (native and exotic species) and native forest patches not included on Protected Areas. The exotic forests were dominated mainly by Pittosporum undulatum, Eucalyptus spp., Cryptomeria japonica, Acacia melanoxylon and Pinus pinaster. The native forests were mainly dominated by Erica azorica, Laurus azorica, Ilex perado azorica and Juniperus brevifolia, between others. Mixed forests included exotic and native species of vegetation|
|Quality Control||All sampled individuals were first sorted by trained paratoxonomists. All specimens were allocated to a taxonomic species by Paulo A. V. Borges. Despite the uncertainty of juvenile identification, juveniles are also included in the data presented in this paper, since the low diversity allowed a relatively precise identification of this life-stage in Azores.|
Method step description:
- At the laboratory, specimen sorting and arthropod identification followed standard procedures. A combination of morphological and anatomical characters and reproductive structures was used for species identification. A reference collection was made for all collected specimens by assigning them a morphospecies code number and depositing them at the Dalberto Teixeira Pombo Insect Collection, University of Azores.
|Collection Name||Entomoteca Dalberto Teixeira Pombo (DTP)|
|Specimen preservation methods||Alcohol|
- Borges, P.A.V., Pimentel, R., Carvalho, R., Nunes, R., Wallon, S. & Ros Prieto, A. (2017). Seasonal dynamics of arthropods in the humid native forests of Terceira Island (Azores). Arquipelago Life and Marine Sciences, 34: 105-122.
- Borges, P.A.V., Rigal, F., Ros-Prieto, A., & Cardoso, P. (2020). Increase of insular exotic arthropod diversity is a fundamental dimension of the current biodiversity crisis. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 13: 508-518. DOI: 10.1111/icad.12431
- Costa, R. & Borges, P.A.V. (2021). SLAM Project - Long term ecological study of the impacts of climate change in the natural forest of Azores: I - the spiders from native forests of Terceira and Pico Islands (2012-2019). Biodiversity Data Journal, 9: e69924. DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.9.e69924
- Matthews, T., Sadler, J.P., Carvalho, R., Nunes, R. & Borges, P.A.V. (2019). Differential turnover rates and temporal beta-diversity patterns of native and non-native arthropod species in a fragmented native forest landscape. Ecography, 42: 45–54 . DOI: 10.1111/ecog.03812
- Tsafack, N., Fattorini, S., Boieiro, M., Rigal, F., Ros-Prieto, A., Ferreira, M.T. & Borges, P.A.V. (2021). The role of small lowland patches of exotic forests as refuges of rare endemic Azorean arthropods. Diversity, 13(9): 443. Doi: 10.3390/d13090443