The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 428,042 records.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Encarnação V, Loureiro A, Afonso B C (2021): Ringing or bird recapture. v1. ICNF - Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=anilhagem_recaptura_aves&v=1.0
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is ICNF - Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 8ea87d00-f94e-4221-8f2f-2e9150132361. ICNF - Instituto da Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Portugal.
Occurrence; Birds Ringing Recapture
The resource data is also available in other formats
|Shapefile Ringing or bird recapture||http://si.icnf.pt/shp/anilhagem UTF-8 Shapefile|
|KML||http://si.icnf.pt/kml/anilhagem UTF-8 KML|
|WMS||http://si.icnf.pt/wms/anilhagem UTF-8 Raster|
|WFS||http://si.icnf.pt/wfs/anilhagem UTF-8 Shapefile|
|Euring Exchange Code||https://euring.org/files/documents/E2000PLUSExchangeCodeV117.pdf UTF-8 PDF|
|Metadata||https://sig.icnf.pt/portal/sharing/rest/content/items/25e6a96e1289403ab4a0ac30ed938a72/info/metadata/metadata.xml?format=default&output=html UTF-8 HTML|
Who created the resource:
Who can answer questions about the resource:
Who filled in the metadata:
The occurrences have a worldwide distribution, with observations recorded in Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Croatia, Czechia, Côte D'Ivoire, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Falkland Islands, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jersey, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Bahamas, The Gambia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the United States.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [-90, -180], North East [90, 180]|
This dataset includes 428042 records referring to specimens of 23 different orders, 68 families, and 353 species/subspecies.
|Order||Accipitriformes, Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, Anseriformes, Coraciiformes, Galliformes, Apodiformes, Pelecaniformes, Strigiformes, Procellariiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Ciconiiformes, Cuculiformes, Columbiformes, Piciformes, Falconiformes, Gruiformes, Otidiformes, Suliformes, Phoenicopteriformes, Podicipediformes, Pteroclidiformes, Bucerotiformes|
|Start Date / End Date||1936-03-01 / 2016-06-09|
The dataset “Ringing or bird recapture” is a publication edited by the Institute for Nature and Forest Conservation (ICNF) and was created with the aim of compiling all data on ringing or recapture of birds in Portugal and respective homologous centres in other countries. It has an inventory of 353 different species/subspecies, 428042 records and covers a period from 1936 to 2016. This geographic information refers to the collection and processing of data provided by people and entities that carry out ringing and recapture activities in Portugal, centralizing the information necessary to meet the requests of homologous centres in other countries, namely in Europe through the European Union for Bird Ringing (EURING), a supranational body responsible for coordinating the activities carried out by the different ringing centres in the countries of Europe. Data collection is done in the application called "Ring Access", which is a program for the management of ringing information, controls, and ring recovery. The data format is in principle EURING 2000 with some national adjustments. The activity of ringing birds for scientific purposes is regulated in Decree-Law Nº 140/99, of April 24 (Article 18), with the new wording given by Decree-Law Nº 49/2005, of February 24, which transposes the Community Directives 'Birds' (Directive 2009/147/CE, of 30 November, which revoked Directive 79/409/CEE) and 'Habitats' (92/43/CE) into national legislation.
|Title||Anilhagem ou recaptura de aves|
|Funding||The preparation of this resource for publication through GBIF was supported by Project PORBIOTA—Portuguese E-Infrastructure for Information and Research on Biodiversity (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022127), under the Operational Thematic Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization (POCI), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) and FCT.|
The personnel involved in the project:
The data collection is done in the application called "Ring Access", which is a programme for the management of ringing information, controls and ring retrieval. The data format is by principle EURING 2000 with some national adjustments. Several parameters can be saved, but not necessarily all of them have to be used. The activity of bird ringing for scientific purposes is regulated by Decree-Law nº 140/99, of 24th April (article 18), as amended by Decree-Law nº 49/2005, of 24th February, which transposes into national legislation the Community Birds (Directive 2009/147/EC of 30th November, which revoked Directive 79/409/EEC) and Habitats (92/43/EC) Directives.
|Study Extent||The geographic scope of this study focuses mainly on birds ringed and recaptured in Portugal, but also all other countries where birds originally ringed in Portugal were recaptured.|
|Quality Control||All initial data was inserted in a specific relational database built specifically for the project, which implemented several quality control methods. In the preparation of the dataset for GBIF publication, data consistency was verified using cluster algorithms using OpenRefine.|
Method step description:
- The original file was downloaded from the ICNF geocatalog (https://geocatalogo.icnf.pt/catalogo_tema2.html) in shapefile format and was imported into a GIS program, where it was converted to WGS84 and exported in CSV format. The original dataset contained codes in most of its fields, according to the EURING Exchange Code 2000+ v117- January 2018 rules. To facilitate their interpretation, their meanings have been added followed by the original code in square brackets. Original dataset fields that were not converted to Darwin Core have been added to the dynamicProperties. We present below the summary of the translation of codes and respective decisions.
- Using two distinct applications in Java, the following information was obtained based on coordinates: timezone (considering the date, due to DST), country, countryCode, stateProvince and municipality. With a third application and using the list of species in the database as a basis, the following fields were collected: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specificEpithet, infraspecificEpithet, acceptedNameUsage and scientificNameAuthorship. After this collection, the scientific names were compared with the names present in “Aves de Portugal” (http://www.avesdeportugal.info/avesdeportugal-cient-alf.html), and the different names were updated to the most recent taxonomy, based on Avibase (https://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/avibase.jsp?lang=EN). The taxonomicStatus column was introduced to notify the user of spelling errors in the original taxonomy or updates, present in their most current form in the acceptedNameUsage field.
- The lifeStage column was created based on the original "age" column; however, it was decided to leave the original column present in the dynamicProperties to be more informative. The codes were translated as follows: 0 – “blank”; 1 – juvenile; Every other code – adult.
- In samplingProtocol is described the methodology used in the capture of birds, and eventRemarks field contains information regarding the use of bait in the bird capture methodology. In occurrenceRemarks, the information regarding the condition and circumstance has been added. In the case of ring destroyed or lost, this same note was added, as well as when the original lifeStage value was unlikely, regarding the reference values (Euring Code). In the case of line 332203, the previous ring number of the respective bird was also added (the only case in the dataset in which this notification occurred).
- The eventTime field resulted from the conversion of the original “time” field. Values alone (e.g. 1 or 2) were converted to hourly intervals (1:00-1:59) after checking the preferred time of activity of the recorded species. Null or unregistered values remain empty, but the timezone was still added, in ISO format. Some original date values were impossible to translate (recorded in the verbatimEventDate field), but some (e.g. 3013) were easily convertible (e.g. 2013) so the eventDate, day, month and year fields were filled in with plausible values.
- The field coordinateUncertaintyInMeteres resulted from the conversion of the original field “coord_ac”. However, when the original value was 0 (which by the translation of the EURING code corresponded to the perfect match with the location of the coordinates), the value of 100 meters was placed because it was reasonable lower limit before 2020-05-01 of a GPS reading under good conditions (Darwin Core suggestion) because all dates are before 2020: 0 – 100m; 1 – 5000m; 2 – 10000m; 9 – “blank”.
- The island and islandGroup fields were created based on coordinates, compared to a shapefile with islands worldwide. A match was made between the points and this shapefile, and the names of the respective islands were collected. After this collection, the name of the respective archipelago was added, when it existed. Due to possible projection deviations, and the fact that some coordinates have been collected at sea (despite being next to islands), there may be information actually collected on islands and whose fields island and islandGroup are not filled.
- The original column with locality contained coding errors. To correct it, it was necessary to select the locations with an error and do a search for the correct names. Locality names like #REF, UNKNOWN and others impossible to translate, were left in the verbatimLocality field but blank in the locality field. After this cleanup, the database was imported into OpenRefine and using cluster algorithms, similar names of localities were grouped and written equally (e.g. LOURINHA & LOURINHÃ -> LOURINHÃ). Finally, the file was exported in CSV format with UTF-8 encoding.