The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 226 records.
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Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Melo C, Walker C, Freitas H, Machado A, Borges P A V (2019): Distribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Terceira and S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal). v1.8. Universidade dos Açores. Dataset/Samplingevent. http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=arbuscular_mycorrhizal_fungi_terceira_azores&v=1.8
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The publisher and rights holder of this work is Universidade dos Açores. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: c72a7a97-9de0-4854-aa80-90df6389ff12. Universidade dos Açores publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Portugal.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); native forest; Juniperus brevifolia; Picconia azorica; semi-natural and intensively managed pastures
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Terceira and São Miguel islands, the Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [37.423, -27.532], North East [38.959, -24.917]|
All the species were identified to species level
|Start Date / End Date||2007-08-14 / 2013-09-17|
The data present here come from samples collected during three research projects (CD_Melo_PhD; CD_Melo_Postdoc; FCT - PTDC /AGR-ALI/122152/2010) which aimed to assess the impact of land use type on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) diversity and composition in pastures of Terceira Island (Azores, Macaonesia, Portugal), and also in native forest of two Azorean Islands (Terceira and São Miguel; Azores, Macaonesia, Portugal). Both projects contributed to improving the knowledge of AMF community structure at both local and regional scales
|Title||Distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Terceira and S. Miguel Island (Azores)|
|Funding||This research was funded by Fundo Regional para a Ciência e Tecnologia – Governo dos Açores (M3.1.a/F/059/2016; M3.1.a/F/012/2016) and by the Development Grant (IF/00462/2013) from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) Portugal with national funds and co-funded by FEDER and COMPETE 2020 program. This research was funded by the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (SFRH/BD/18355/2004; SFRH/BPD/78059/2011) and by the Fundo Regional para a Ciência e Tecnologia – Governo dos Açores (M3.1.a/F/059/2016). We gratefully acknowledge to Enésima Mendonça for the creation of the Darwin Core Archive. Data acquisition from native forest was funded by the project FCT-PTDC /AGR-ALI/122152/2010. This manuscript is also a contribution to the updated checklist of Azorean arthropods that is being prepared within the newly launched project AZORESBIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072), financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Program Azores 2020|
|Study Area Description||All data used in this study come from surveys conducted in two Islands of the Azorean archipelago, Terceira and São Miguel (Melo et al. 2014, 2017, 2018). The sampling areas were cattle-grazed upland pastures of two different types from Terceira, and four fragments of native forest from each Island. The two pasture types include semi-natural pastures with low grazing intensity and frequency (managed for more than 50 years, with a relatively high diversity of grasses and forbs) and intensively managed pastures with high grazing intensity and frequency (managed for more than 30 years, characterised also by a depauperate vascular flora of five or fewer dominant species) (Melo et al. 2014). The semi-natural pastures, Pico Galhardo (SPPG) and Terra Brava (SPTB) (Fig. 1) are included in Terceira Natural Park and are dominated by the perennial grasses Holcus lanatus and Agrostis castellana, have a high floristic diversity (Dias 1996) (Dias 1996; Borges 1997), often including other grasses such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Lolium multiflorum, Holcus rigidus and Poa trivialis and non-forage species, including Lotus uliginosus, Rumex acetosella ssp. angiocarpus, Potentilla anglica, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Plantago lanceolata, Lobelia urens (For more details see Melo et al. 2014). The intensively managed pastures, Agualva 1 (IPR1) and Agualva 2 (IPR2) (Fig. 1) resulted of the conversion of native forest to wood production and, finally, to permanent pastures and are surrounded by exotic eucalyptus plantation. The vegetation is dominated by Holcus lanatus and Lolium perenne but also have high populations of Trifolium repens P. lanceolata, Cyperus esculentus, Mentha suaveolens, Cerastium fontanum and Rumex conglomeratus (Dias 1996; Borges 1997). In Terceira the native forest included two fragments from Natural Park – Pico Galhardo (NFPG) and Lagoinha (NFLA) (Melo et al. 2017) both dominated by the Azorean cedar Juniperus brevifolia, a rare conifer species that is endemic of the Azores, which dominates the high-elevation (> 650 m), with subdominant endemic woody perennials, including Laurus azorica (Lauraceae), Ilex perado azorica (Aquifoliaceae), Erica azorica (Ericaceae), Vaccinium cylindraceum (Ericaceae) and Frangula azorica (Rhamnaceae) (Elias et al. 2016). Nevertheless, in Lagoinha, invasive woody species including Cryptomeria japonica, Pittosporum undulatum (Pittosporaceae), Eucalyptus globules and Acacia melanoxylon (Fabaceae) have begun to establish. The remain two native fragments from Terceira include two populations of Picconia azorica – Terra Brava (NFTB) and Serreta (NFSE). Terra Brava is included in the very wet Laurisilva at 650 m of altitude being dominated by endemic woody plants, predominantly L. azorica, I. azorica, Frangula azorica, V. cylindraceum, E. azorica, Myrsine africana, and occasionally by J. brevifolia and P. azorica. Serreta (NFSE) is located at low altitude and is characterised by a low diversity of plants, dominated by Morella faya and P. azorica, and occasionally by L. azorica. These forests are located in the most thermophilic areas of Azores and are almost extinct (Dias 1996). The highest canopy is dominated by a dense cover of P. undulatum, and rarely by L. azorica. This forest is mixed with other invasive woody. species including Metrosideros excelsa, E. globules, A. melanoxylon, Sphaeropteris cooperi, Fuchsia magellanica and Rubus inermis. The herbaceous stratum is dominated by Dryopteris azorica, Hedera helix var. azorica, Smilax aspera and Gomphocarpus fruticosus (Dias 1996). In São Miguel the four native fragments are two populations of J. brevifolia up to 700 m of altitude (Lombadas and Tronqueira) and two populations of P. azorica located at low lands (Ribeira Quente and lombo Gordo). Lombadas (NFLO) is included in Natural Reserve of Lagoa do Fogo in S. Miguel. Although the surrounding vegetation is dominated by the introduced species C. japonica, Clethra arborea, A. melanoxylon and E. globulus, this forest still retains several endemic elements including J. brevifolia, V. cylindraceum (Ericaceae), L. azorica, Euphorbia stygiana (Euphorbiaceae), F. azorica, E. azorica, I. azorica and Culcita macrocarpa (Culcitaceae) (Silva 2001). Tronqueira (NFTR) is included in hyperhumid native forest, a type of forest that was largely replaced by other land uses (Moreira et al. 2012) resulting in an abundance of exotic plants such as C. japonica and C. arborea. The tree layer is composed of the endemic woody plants J. brevifolia, I. azorica, L. azorica, M. africana (Myrsinaceae) and E. azorica while the shrub layer is mostly formed by V. cylindraceum and Viburnum treleasei (Adoxaceae). Lombo Gordo (NFLG) is covered by a coastal scrubland where P. azorica dominates in certain areas but is mixed with other native and invasive woody species including M. faya, E. azorica, P. undulatum, Arundo donax, Hedychium gardnerianum and Phormium tenax (Martins et al. 2011). Ribeira Quente (NFRQ) is also a coastal scrubland dominated by the endemic plants L. azorica and P. azorica but also associated with other native and invasive woody species such as P. undulatum, M. Faya, and A. melanoxylon|
|Design Description||Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) diversity and composition were investigated at three habitat types: natural forest of J. brevifolia and P. azorica, semi-natural pastures and intensively managed pastures. Each habitat type was represented by two sites. At each site from semi-natural (Pico Galhardo – SPPG; Terra Brava – SPTB) and intensively (Agualva 1 – IPR1; Agualva 2 – IPR2) managed pastures ten soil samples were collected in 2007 (i.e, a total of 40 soil samples) (Project CD_Melo_PhD). In natural forest of J. brevifolia from Terceira (Pico Galhardo – NFPG; Lagoinha – NFLA) and from São Miguel (Lombadas – NFLO; Tronqueira – NFTR), twenty-one soil samples were collected from seven marked J. brevifolia plants in each site at three different sampling times between 2012 and 2013 in both islands (i.e, a total of 84 soil samples) (CD_Melo_Postdoc; FCT - PTDC /AGR-ALI/122152/2010). In natural forest of P. azorica from Terceira (Terra Brava - NFTB; Serreta – NFSE) and from São Miguel (Lombo Gordo – NFLG; Ribeira Quente – NFRQ) thirty soil samples were collected from ten marked P. azorica plants in each site at three different sampling times between 2012 and 2013 in both islands (i.e, a total of 240 soil samples). Approximately 2 kg of soil was collected from the rooting zone of H. lanatus, J. brevifolia and P. azorica to a depth of 20-30 cm with a shovel (Melo et al. 2014, 2017). The soil samples were air-dried, sieved through a 2-mm mesh and stored at 4˚C before analysis|
The personnel involved in the project:
Open pot trap cultures (Gilmore 1968) were established from each soil sample collected at semi-natural and intensive pastures with 1-week-old Zea mays seedlings (Melo et al. 2014). Soil samples collected from native forest were used to establish two open pot trap cultures, one with 1-week-old Z. mays seedlings and another one with micropropagated J. brevifolia and P. azorica seedlings
|Study Extent||This dataset was obtained from different sampling campaigns performed between 2007 and 2013 in two islands of the Azores archipelago, São Miguel and Terceira Islands|
Method step description:
- The data has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table (events) contains 226 records and one data table extension also exists (occurrence), with 665 records. The extension supplies extra information about the core record