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Ichthyological Collection of the Museu Oceanográfico D. Carlos I

Latest version published by Aquário Vasco da Gama on Jan 29, 2018 Aquário Vasco da Gama

The collection of the Museu Oceanográfico D. Carlos I is a historical specimen, instrument and document collection that has been housed in the Aquário Vasco da Gama since 1935. The collection was the result of several scientific campaigns conducted by D. Carlos I, widely considered to be the father of modern Portuguese oceanography, from 1896 to 1907. The ichthyological collection is made up of 675 surviving catalogue records of specimens caught and acquired by, or offered to, D. Carlos I from 1892 to 1907, and includes the type specimen for Odontaspis nasutus Bragança, 1904 (junior synonym of Mitsukurina owstoni Jordan, 1898), along with several specimens of deep sea species. All specimens were caught in coastal Portuguese waters, and were preserved in alcohol, formalin, or dried.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 675 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 675 records in Portuguese (69 KB) - Update frequency: unknown
Metadata as an EML file download in English (135 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (36 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Silva, A. S., Pitta Groz, M., Leandro, P., Assis, C. and Figueira, R., 2017. Ichthyological Collection of the Museu Oceanográfico D. Carlos I. v1. Aquário Vasco da Gama. Dataset/Occurrence. http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=codc&v=1.0

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Aquário Vasco da Gama. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 6005f3b4-da6a-4d88-ac92-81f2e950eb24.  Aquário Vasco da Gama publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Portugal.

Keywords

Occurrence; Specimen; Elasmobranchs; Actinopterygians; Agnathans; Holocephalans

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Ana Serra Silva
Volunteer
Aquário Vasco da Gama Rua Direita do Dafundo 1495-718 Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo PT

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Maria Pitta Groz
Curator
Aquário Vasco da Gama Rua Direita do Dafundo 1495-718 Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo PT +351214205000
Paula Leandro
Curator
Aquário Vasco da Gama Rua Direita do Dafundo 1495-718 Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo PT +351214205008

Who filled in the metadata:

Ana Serra Silva
Volunteer
Aquário Vasco da Gama Rua Direita do Dafundo 1495-718 Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo PT

Who else was associated with the resource:

Distributor
Rui Figueira
Researcher
Instituto Superior de Agronomia Herbário, Tapada da Ajuda 1349-017 Lisboa PT +351213653165
Curator
Paula Sousa
Curatorial technician
Aquário Vasco da Gama Rua Direita do Dafundo 1495-718 Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo PT
Content Provider
Carlos Assis
Assistant Professor and Reasearcher
Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Biologia Animal and MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Center Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa PT +351217500570

Geographic Coverage

The bulk of the specimens were collected at the mouths of the rivers Tagus and Sado, and in the bays of Cascais and Sesimbra, usually within 50 nautical miles of the coast. The collection also features several specimens caught in the Algarve coast, a handful of specimens from the coast north of the Cabo da Roca, and one specimen tentatively identified as being from the Azores.

Bounding Coordinates South West [36.704, -10.723], North East [42.294, -6.196]

Taxonomic Coverage

The collection is made up of specimens in the Myxini, Petromyzonti, Elasmobranchii, Holocephali and Actinopterygii classes. The Myxini, Petromyzonti and Holocephali classes are each represented by a single species. There are 30 genera and 38 species of elasmobranchs represented, from 8 orders and 23 families. There are 163 genera and 192 species of actinopterygians, from 24 orders and 94 families. Of 675 records, 652 are identified to the species or subspecies level, representing a total of 196 genera, and 233 species.

Kingdom  Animalia
Phylum  Chordata
Class  Myxini,  Petromyzonti,  Holocephali,  Elasmobranchii,  Actinopterygii
Order  Myxiniformes,  Petromyzontiformes,  Chimaeriformes,  Carcharhiniformes,  Hexanchiformes,  Lamniformes,  Myliobatiformes,  Rajiformes,  Squaliformes,  Squatiniformes,  Torpediniformes,  Anguilliformes,  Atheriniformes,  Aulopiformes,  Batrachoidiformes,  Beloniformes,  Beryciformes,  Clupeiformes,  Gadiformes,  Gobiesociformes,  Lampriformes,  Lophiiformes,  Myctophiformes,  Notacanrhiformes,  Ophidiiformes,  Osmeriformes,  Perciformes,  Pleuronectiformes,  Saccopharyngiformes,  Scorpaeniformes,  Stephanoberyciformes,  Stomiiformes,  Syngnathiformes,  Tetraodontiformes,  Zeiformes
Family  Myxinidae,  Petromyzontidae,  Chimaeridae,  Carcharhinidae,  Pseudotriakidae,  Scyliorhinidae,  Sphyrnidae,  Triakidae,  Chlamydoselachidae,  Hexanchidae,  Alopiidae,  Cetorhinidae,  Lamnidae,  Mitsukurinidae,  Myliobatidae,  Rajidae,  Rhinobatidae,  Centophoridae,  Dalatiidae,  Echinorhinidae,  Etmopteridae,  Oxynotidae,  Somniosidae,  Squalidae,  Squatinidae,  Torpedinidae,  Anguillidae,  Congridae,  Muraenidae,  Nemichthyidae,  Ophichthidae,  Synaphobranchidae,  Atherinidae,  Alepisauridae,  Aulopidae,  Batrachoididae,  Belonidae,  Scomberesocidae,  Berycidae,  Trachichthyidae,  Clupeidae,  Gadidae,  Lotidae,  Macrouridae,  Merlucciidae,  Moridae,  Phycidae,  Gobiesocidae,  Lampridae,  Regalecidae,  Trachipteridae,  Antennariidae,  Chaunacidae,  Himantolophidae,  Lophiidae,  Myctophidae,  Notacanthidae,  Carapidae,  Ophidiidae,  Alepocephalidae,  Argentinidae,  Ammodytidae,  Blenniidae,  Bramidae,  Callionymidae,  Caproidae,  Carangidae,  Caristiidae,  Centracanthidae,  Centrolophidae,  Cepolidae,  Chiasmodontidae,  Clinidae,  Echeneidae,  Epigonidae,  Gempylidae,  Gobiidae,  Gobiidae,  Haemulidae,  Labridae,  Moronidae,  Mugillidae,  Mullidae,  Nomeidae,  Polyprionidae,  Pomacanthidae,  Pomacentridae,  Pomatomidae,  Sciaenidae,  Scombridae,  Serranidae,  Sparidae,  Sphyraenidae,  Stromateidae,  Trachinidae,  Trichiuridae,  Uranoscopidae,  Xiphiidae,  Bothidae,  Citharidae,  Cynoglossidae,  Scophthalmidae,  Soleidae,  Saccopharyngidae,  Cottidae,  Peristediidae,  Scorpaenidae,  Sebastidae,  Triglidae,  Melamphaidae,  Gonostomatidae,  Sternoptychidae,  Stomiidae,  Centriscidae,  Syngnathidae,  Balistidae,  Diodontidae,  Molidae,  Tetraodontidae,  Zeidae
Genus  Myxine,  Petromyzon,  Chimaera,  Carcharhinus,  Prionace,  Pseudotriakis,  Galeus,  Scyliorhinus,  Sphyrna,  Galeorhinus,  Mustelus,  Chlamydoselachus,  Hexanchus,  Heptranchias,  Alopias,  Cetorhinus,  Lamna,  Isurus,  Mitsukurina,  Myliobatis,  Raja,  Rajella,  Rhinobatos,  Centrophorus,  Deania,  Dalatias,  Echinorhinus,  Etmopterus,  Oxynotus,  Centroscymnus,  Scymnodon,  Squalus,  Squatina,  Torpedo,  Anguilla,  Conger,  Muraena,  Nemichthys,  Ophisurus,  Synaphobranchus,  Atherina,  Alepisaurus,  Aulopus,  Halobatrachus,  Belone,  Scomberesox,  Beryx,  Hoplostethus,  Alosa,  Sardina,  Gadiculus,  Micromesistius,  Pollachius,  Trisopterus,  Ciliata,  Gaidropsarus,  Molva,  Nezumia,  Trachyrincus,  Merluccius,  Gadella,  Halargyreus,  Mora,  Phycis,  Diplecogaster,  Lepadogaster,  Lampris,  Regalecus,  Trachipterus,  Antennarius,  Chaunax,  Himantolophus,  Lophius,  Diaphus,  Symbolophorus,  Notacanthus,  Carapus,  Ophidion,  Alepocephalus,  Xenodermichthys,  Argentina,  Ammodytes,  Gymnammodytes,  Hyperoplus,  Blennius,  Lipophrys,  Parablennius,  Salaria,  Brama,  Callionymus,  Capros,  Naucrates,  Trachinotus,  Trachurus,  Caristius,  Centracanthus,  Spicara,  Centrolophus,  Schedophilus,  Cepola,  Chiasmodon,  Clinitrachus,  Echeneis,  Phtheirichthys,  Remora,  Epigonus,  Nesiarchus,  Ruvettus,  Deltentosteus,  Gobius,  Gobiusculus,  Lesueurigobius,  Pomatoschistus,  Parapristipoma,  Plectorhichus,  Centrolabrus,  Coris,  Labrus,  Symphodus,  Dicentrarchus,  Chelon,  Liza,  Mugil,  Mullus,  Cubiceps,  Polyprion,  Chromis,  Pomatomus,  Argyrosomus,  Auxis,  Sarda,  Scomber,  Thunnus,  Anthias,  Epinephelus,  Serranus,  Dentex,  Diplodus,  Lithognathus,  Oblada,  Pagellus,  Pagrus,  Sarpa,  Sparus,  Spondyliosoma,  Sphyraena,  Stromateus,  Echiichthys,  Trachinus,  Aphanopus,  Benthodesmus,  Lepidopus,  Trichiurus,  Uranoscopus,  Xiphias,  Arnoglossus,  Bothus,  Citharus,  Symphurus,  Lepidorhombus,  Scophthalmus,  Zeugopterus,  Dagetichthys,  Dicologlossa,  Microchirus,  Monochirus,  Pegusa,  Solea,  Saccopharynx,  Taurulus,  Peristedion,  Pontinus,  Scorpaena,  Helicolenus,  Chelidonichthys,  Eutrigla,  Lepidotrigla,  Trigla,  Trigloporus,  Poromitra,  Cyclothone,  Gonostoma,  Argyropelecus,  Chauliodus,  Macroramphosus,  Entelurus,  Hippocampus,  Nerophis,  Syngnathus,  Balistes,  Chilomycterus,  Diodon,  Mola,  Lagocephalus,  Sphoeroides,  Zeus
Species  Myxine glutinosa,  Petromyzon marinus,  Chimaera monstrosa,  Carcharhinus obscurus,  Prionace glauca,  Pseudotriakis microdon,  Galeus melastomus,  Scyliorhinus canicula,  Scyliorhinus stellaris,  Sphyrna zygaena,  Galeorhinus galeus,  Mustelus mustelus,  Chlamydoselachus anguineus,  Hexanchus griseus,  Heptranchias perlo,  Alopias vulpinus,  Cetorhinus maximus,  Lamna nasus,  Isurus oxyrinchus,  Mitsukurina owstoni,  Myliobatis aquila,  Raja clavata,  Raja montagui,  Raja undulata,  Rajella lintea,  Rhinobatos rhinobatos,  Centrophorus granulosus,  Centrophorus lusitanicus,  Centrophorus squamosus,  Deania calcea,  Dalatias licha,  Echinorhinus brucus,  Etmopterus pusillus,  Etmopterus spinax,  Oxynotus centrina,  Centroscymnus coelolepis,  Scymnodon ringens,  Squalus acanthias,  Squalus blainville,  Squatina squatina,  Torpedo marmorata,  Torpedo torpedo,  Anguilla anguilla,  Conger conger,  Muraena helena,  Nemichthys scolopaceus,  Ophisurus serpens,  Synaphobranchus kaupii,  Atherina presbyter,  Alepisaurus ferox,  Aulopus filamentosus,  Halobatrachus didactylus,  Belone belone,  Scomberesox saurus,  Beryx decadactylus,  Beryx splendens,  Hoplostethus mediterraneus,  Alosa falax,  Sardina pilchardus,  Gadiculus argenteus,  Micromesistius poutassou,  Pollachius pollachius,  Trisopterus luscus,  Ciliata mustela,  Gaidropsarus mediterraneus,  Molva macrophthalma,  Molva molva,  Trachyrincus scabrus,  Merluccius merluccius,  Gadella maraldi,  Halargyreus johnsonii,  Mora moro,  Phycis blennoides,  Phycis phycis,  Diplecogaster bimaculata,  Lepadogaster lepadogaster,  Lampris guttatus,  Regalecus glesne,  Trachipterus trachypterus,  Chaunax pictus,  Himantolophus groenlandicus,  Lophius budegassa,  Diaphus rafinesquii,  Symbolophorus veranyi,  Notacanthus chemnitzii,  Carapus acus,  Ophidion barbatum,  Alepocephalus bairdii,  Xenodermichthys copei,  Argentina sphyraena,  Ammodytes tobianus,  Gymnammodytes cicerelus,  Hyperoplus lanceolatus,  Blennius ocellaris,  Lipophrys pholis,  Parablennius gattorugine,  Salaria pavo,  Brama brama,  Callionymus lyra,  Callionymus risso,  Capros aper,  Naucrates ductor,  Trachinotus ovatus,  Trachurus mediterraneus,  Trachurus picturatus,  Trachurus trachurus,  Centracanthus cirrus,  Spicara smaris,  Centrolophus niger,  Schedophilus ovalis,  Cepola macrophthalma,  Chiasmodon niger,  Clinitrachus argentatus,  Echeneis naucrates,  Phtheirichthys lineatus,  Remora brachyptera,  Remora osteochir,  Remora remora,  Epigonus telescopus,  Nesiarchus nasutus,  Ruvettus pretiosus,  Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus,  Gobius auratus,  Gobius cobitis,  Gobius paganellus,  Gobius niger,  Gobiusculus flavescens,  Lesueurigobius friesii,  Pomatoschistus minutus,  Parapristipoma humile,  Plectorhinchus mediterraneus,  Centrolabrus exoletus,  Coris julis,  Labrus bergylta,  Labrus mixtus,  Symphodus bailloni,  Symphodus melops,  Dicentrarchus labrax,  Dicentrarchus punctatus,  Chelon labrosus,  Liza aurata,  Liza ramada,  Mugil cephalus,  Mullus barbatus,  Cubiceps gracilis,  Polyprion americanus,  Chromis chromis,  Pomatomus saltatrix,  Argyrosomus regius,  Auxis rochei,  Sarda sarda,  Scomber colias,  Scomber scombrus,  Thunnus thynnus,  Anthias anthias,  Epinephelus marginatus,  Serranus atricauda,  Serranus cabrilla,  Serranus hepatus,  Dentex macrophthalmus,  Diplodus annularis,  Diplodus sargus,  Diplodus vulgaris,  Lithognathus mormyrus,  Oblada melanura,  Pagellus acarne,  Pagellus bogaraveo,  Pagrus auriga,  Pagrus pagrus,  Sarpa salpa,  Sparus aurata,  Spondyliosoma cantharus,  Sphyraena sphyraena,  Stromateus fiatola,  Echiichthys vipera,  Trachinus araneus,  Trachinus draco,  Aphanopus carbo,  Benthodesmus simonyi,  Lepidopus caudatus,  Trichiurus lepturus,  Uranoscopus scaber,  Xiphias gladius,  Arnoglossus laterna,  Arnoglossus thori,  Bothus podas,  Citharus linguatula,  Symphurus nigrescens,  Lepidorhombus boscii,  Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis,  Scophthalmus maximus,  Scophthalmus rhombus,  Zeugopterus regius,  Dagetichthys lusitanicus,  Dicologlossa cuneata,  Microchirus azevia,  Microchirus ocellatus,  Microchirus variegatus,  Monochirus hispidus,  Pegusa lascaris,  Solea senegalensis,  Solea solea,  Saccopharynx ampullaceus,  Taurulus bubalis,  Peristedion cataphractum,  Pontinus kuhlii,  Scorpaena notata,  Scorpaena porcus,  Scorpaena scrofa,  Helicolenus dactylopterus,  Chelidonichthys cuculus,  Chelidonichthys lucerna,  Chelidonichthys obscurus,  Eutrigla gurnardus,  Lepidotrigla cavillone,  Trigla lyra,  Trigloporus lastoviza,  Poromitra capito,  Cyclothone braueri,  Gonostoma denudatum,  Argyropelecus hemigymnus,  Chauliodus sloani,  Macroramphosus scolopax,  Entelurus aequoreus,  Hippocampus guttulatus,  Nerophis ophidion,  Syngnathus acus,  Syngnathus typhle,  Balistes capriscus,  Chilomycterus reticulatus,  Chilomycterus spinosus,  Diodon hystrix,  Mola mola,  Lagocephalus lagocephalus,  Sphoeroides spengleri,  Zeus faber

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 1892-07-18 / 1907-06-08

Project Data

The aim of the project was to compile a taxonomically updated electronic catalogue of the ichthyological specimens that eliminated inconsistencies between the three existing catalogues. Secondarily, the records belonging to the collection of the Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I were assessed for publication, due to its historical importance.

Title Revisão Taxonómica e Consolidação dos Catálogos das Coleções Ictiológicas do Aquário Vasco da Gama
Funding No funding was used.
Study Area Description The specimens belonging to King Carlos's ichthyological collection were captured, between 1892 and 1907, in Portuguese coastal waters, those caught by the king were captured mostly in the area between the Cabo da Roca and Setubal.
Design Description The work consisted of cross checking the three existing catalogues, and the specimen labels, to generate a consolidated electronic catalogue with up to date taxonomy. Once the catalogue was prepared, the records pertaining to the ichthyological collection of the Museu Oceanográfico D. Carlos I were prepared for publication. To do this additional information was retrieved from the King's manuscripts.

The personnel involved in the project:

Author
Ana Serra Silva
Curator
Paula Sousa

Sampling Methods

The specimens were caught using a variety of fishing nets, lines and traps (côvo). The line fishing methods include longline fishing (espinhel) and angling. The fishing nets used range from bottom and midwater trawls to dragnets. Traditional fishing techniques may also have been used, as some specimens were bought in markets or offered by fishermen, but there is no record for those. There is also record of one specimen being harpooned.

Study Extent The specimens belonging to King Carlos's ichthyological collection can be divided in three groups: the specimens caught during the king's oceanographic campaigns, the specimens caught by the king outside the campaigns, and those offered to the king. All specimens were captured in Portuguese coastal waters, those caught by the king were captured mostly in the area between the Cabo da Roca and Setubal, and some in the Algarve. The specimens were captured year round, between 1892 and 1907, but the oceanographic campaigns were usually held in the spring and summer months, from 1896 to 1907.
Quality Control The validity of species' names was checked using both FishBase (Froese and Pauly, 2017) and the Catalogue of Fishes (Eschmeyer et al., 2017). Synonymy was checked across all three catalogues, if incongruences were found between catalogues the earliest name on record was used for disambiguation. If the names used in the earliest catalogue did not resolve the nomenclatural inconsistency, geographical ranges of the species were checked and used to assign the currently accepted species name. When these steps were insufficient to identify the correct species, Dr Carlos Assis was invited to identify the specimens. Lastly, for mislabelled elasmobranch specimens, the identification keys in Sharks of the World (Compagno, 1986) were used.

Method step description:

  1. The work started by cross checking the existing electronic and card catalogues with the published 1942 catalogue (Gonçalves, 1942), as well as the labels, and generating a new catalogue with all non-conflicting information. For the taxonomy fields, FishBase (Froese and Pauly, 2017) and the Catalogue of Fishes (Eschmeyer et al., 2017) were used to identify the currently accepted name for each species. All the records were checked for synonymy, when inconsistencies arose between the existing records, the geographically concordant species name was chosen. For those records where this criterion could not be used, the elasmobranch specimens were identified using Compagno's Sharks of the World (1984), and actinopterygian specimens were identified by Dr Carlos Assis.
  2. Once the taxonomical revision was complete, the records belonging to the Museu Oceanográfico D. Carlos I were separated onto a DarwinCore compatible Excel file. This initial file was enriched with data taken from the king's records of his oceanographic campaigns.

Collection Data

Collection Name Coleção do Museu Oceanográfico D. Carlos I
Parent Collection Identifier Not applicable
Specimen preservation methods Alcohol,  Formalin,  Mounted
Curatorial Units Between 590 and 600 Jars ,  Between 60 and 70 Mounted ,  Count 16 +/- 2 Jaws

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2017. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (02/2017).
  2. van der Laan, R., W. N. Eschmeyer and R. Fricke. FAMILY-GROUP NAMES. http://www.calacademy.org/scientists/catalog-of-fishes-family-group-names). Electronic version accessed 11 Apr 2017.
  3. Gonçalves, B.R., 1941. Colecção oceanográfica de D. Carlos I-Peixes. Travaux de la Station de Biologie Maritime de Lisbonne, 46.
  4. Bragança, C., 1896. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1896. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 6. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  5. Bragança, C., 1897. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1897. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 7. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  6. Bragança, C., 1898. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1898. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 8. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  7. Bragança, C., 1899. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1899. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 9. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  8. Bragança, C., 1900. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1900. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 10. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  9. Bragança, C., 1901. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1901. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 11. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  10. Bragança, C., 1902. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1902. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 12. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  11. Bragança, C., 1903. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1903. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 13. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  12. Bragança, C., 1904. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1904. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 14. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  13. Bragança, C., 1905. Campanha Oceanográfica de 1905. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 15. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  14. Bragança, C., 1907. Campanhas Oceanográficas de 1906 e 1907. [Manuscript] Biblioteca do Museu Oceanográfico do Rei D. Carlos I, 16. Cruz Quebrada-Dafundo: Aquário Vasco da Gama.
  15. Compagno, L.J., 1984. Sharks Of The World Vol 4 Part 1.
  16. Compagno, L.J., 1984. Sharks Of The World Vol 4 Part 2.
  17. Eschmeyer, W. N., R. Fricke, and R. van der Laan (eds). CATALOG OF FISHES: GENERA, SPECIES, REFERENCES. (http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Electronic version accessed Jan 2017.

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