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Spiders from Macaronesia_Azores

Latest version published by Universidade dos Açores on Dec 4, 2018 Universidade dos Açores

The data presented here comes from samples collected as part of two recent research projects (ISLANDBIODIV and MACDIV), which aimed to understand the drivers of community assembly in Macaronesian islands. We applied the sampling protocol COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment, Cardoso 2009) in ten 50 m x 50 m native forest plots in the Azorean Islands of Pico (6 plots) and Terceira (10 plots) to assess the diversity of spiders species. Through this publication we contribute to the knowledge of the arachnofauna of the Azores, and more specifically, to that of the islands of Pico and Terceira. This dataset presents data generated from spider samples collected in 16 forest plots on the Azorean islands of Pico and Terceira. Of the 40 species collected, 16 were introduced, 13 endemic, seven native (five of them Macaronesian endemics) and four undescribed species. Although most of the species had been previously recorded on both islands, two of the introduced species were recorded in Pico for the first time.

Data Records

The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 423 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Event (core)
    423
  • Occurrence 
    1639

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 423 records in English (82 KB) - Update frequency: unknown
Metadata as an EML file download in English (22 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (15 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Malumbres-Olarte J, Cardoso P, Crespo L C, Gabriel R, Pereira F, Carvalho R, Rego C, Nunes R, Ferreira M T, R. Amorim I, C. Emerson B, Rigal F, Borges P A V (2018): Spiders from Macaronesia_Azores. v1.0. Universidade dos Açores. Dataset/Metadata. http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=azorean_spiders&v=1.0

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Universidade dos Açores. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 6aa5ac09-2b55-4078-bd2d-ec94fb91850a.  Universidade dos Açores publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by GBIF Portugal.

Keywords

Sampling event; Arthropoda; Araneae; Azores; Terceira; Pico; native forest; exotic species; standardised sampling; Samplingevent

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte
Postdoctoral researcher
University of Helsinki P.O.Box 17 (Pohjoinen Rautatiekatu 13) Helsinki, Finland 00014 Helsinki Helsinki FI
Pedro Cardoso
Curator / Adjunct Professor
University of Helsinki P.O.Box 17 (Pohjoinen Rautatiekatu 13) 00014 Helsinki Helsinki FI
Luís Carlos Crespo
PhD student
University of Barcelona Av. Diagonal 645, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain E-08028 Barcelona ES
Rosalina Gabriel
Researcher
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200
Fernando Pereira
Technician
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200
Rui Carvalho
PhD Student
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200
Carla Rego
PhD student
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200
Rui Nunes
PhD student
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200
Maria Teresa Ferreira
PhD student
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT
Isabel R. Amorim
Post-doc fellow
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT
Brent C. Emerson
IPNA-CSIC C/Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 3 38206 La Laguna Tenerife ES
François Rigal
Post-doctoral fellow
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT
Paulo Alexandre Vieira Borges
Auxiliary Professor
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Paulo Alexandre Vieira Borges
Universidade dos Açores Rua Capitão João d´Ávila, Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Ilha Terceira PT +351295402200

Who filled in the metadata:

Tainan Messina
Activities Manager
GBIF Tapada da Ajuda 1300-344 Lisboa Lisboa PT +351 213653165

Geographic Coverage

Pico and Terceira Islands, the Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal

Bounding Coordinates South West [36.457, -30.85], North East [41.344, -24.478]

Taxonomic Coverage

Rank: order; Scientific Name: Araneae: Common Name: Spiders

Order  Anareae (Spiders)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2012-06-01 / 2016-09-26

Project Data

The data presented here comes from samples collected as part of two recent research projects (ISLANDBIODIV and MACDIV), which aimed to understand the drivers of community assembly in Macaronesian islands. We applied the sampling protocol COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment, Cardoso 2009) in ten 50 m x 50 m native forest plots in the Azorean Islands of Pico (6 plots) and Terceira (10 plots) to assess the diversity of spiders species. Through this publication we contribute to the knowledge of the arachnofauna of the Azores, and more specifically, to that of the islands of Pico and Terceira. This dataset presents data generated from spider samples collected in 16 forest plots on the Azorean islands of Pico and Terceira. Of the 41 species collected, 17 were introduced, 5 Macaronesian, 2 native, 13 endemic and 4 were undescribed species of unknown distribution. Although most of the species had been previously recorded on both islands, two of the introduced species were recorded in Pico for the first time.

Title Standardised inventories of spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of Macaronesian native forests: The Azores.
Study Area Description Terceira Island (area: 400.6 km²; elevation: 1,021.14 m) is one of the nine islands from the Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic, roughly at 38°43′49″N 27°19′10″W. The climate in the Azores is temperate oceanic, with regular and abundant rainfall, with high levels of relative humidity and persistent winds, mainly during the winter and autumn seasons. Terceira Island is known for the presence of some very important pristine areas at high elevation (Gaspar et al. 2011). However, few natural areas still remain at lower elevations, notably in Praia da Vitória’s council.
Design Description At all plots we applied the optimised and standardised COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment) sampling protocol for temperate forests (Cardoso 2009). Different variants of the COBRA protocol for spiders have already been applied in oceanic islands (Emerson et al. 2017) and tropical forests (Malumbres- Olarte et al. 2016, Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2017). Although originally developed and optimised for mainland habitats, COBRA has been recently proposed to be the standard protocol for inventorying and monitoring island forest ecosystems (Borges et al. 2018b). The COBRA protocol for temperate forest spiders consists of: 4 night aerial samples (1 hour/ sample), 2 day sweeping samples and 2 night sweeping samples (1 hour/ sample), 2 day beating samples and 2 night beating samples (1 hour/ sample) and 12 pitfall samples (4 traps/ sample). For the island sampling additional samples were added to also cover beetle diversity (Borges et al. 2018b): 2 diurnal active aerial searching under bark, lichens and bryophytes (ABS) (1 hour/ sample) and 2 diurnal active aerial searching in decaying trunks, dead wood on the ground, and under stones (GWS) (1 hour/ sample). The ABS method consists in collecting mostly beetles, but also spiders, found under bark and lichen using a small hoe to remove them when needed. The GWS method is similar to the aerial method but directed towards beetles and spiders found below knee-level, including species hidden below stones, inside hollow trunks or in dead wood.

The personnel involved in the project:

Content Provider
Paulo Vieira Borges

Sampling Methods

At all plots we applied the optimised and standardised COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment) sampling protocol for temperate forests (Cardoso 2009). Different variants of the COBRA protocol for spiders have already been applied in oceanic islands (Emerson et al. 2017) and tropical forests (Malumbres- Olarte et al. 2016, Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2017). Although originally developed and optimised for mainland habitats, COBRA has been recently proposed to be the standard protocol for inventorying and monitoring island forest ecosystems (Borges et al. 2018b). The COBRA protocol for temperate forest spiders consists of: 4 night aerial samples (1 hour/ sample), 2 day sweeping samples and 2 night sweeping samples (1 hour/ sample), 2 day beating samples and 2 night beating samples (1 hour/ sample) and 12 pitfall samples (4 traps/ sample). For the island sampling additional samples were added to also cover beetle diversity (Borges et al. 2018b): 2 diurnal active aerial searching under bark, lichens and bryophytes (ABS) (1 hour/ sample) and 2 diurnal active aerial searching in decaying trunks, dead wood on the ground, and under stones (GWS) (1 hour/ sample). The ABS method consists in collecting mostly beetles, but also spiders, found under bark and lichen using a small hoe to remove them when needed. The GWS method is similar to the aerial method but directed towards beetles and spiders found below knee-level, including species hidden below stones, inside hollow trunks or in dead wood.

Study Extent On each of the Azorean islands of Pico and Terceira, we established respectively six and ten 50 m x 50 m plots along a 20 km long transect. In Pico, each plot is located at increasing distances from the first plot: 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 km. All plots were located in native forest dominated by Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica and Ilex perado subsp. azorica trees (see Borges et al. 2018C for more details).

Method step description:

  1. The data has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table (events) contains 121 records and one data table extension also exists (occurrence), with 1639 records. The extension supplies extra information about the core record.

Collection Data

Collection Name DTP
Collection Identifier DTP
Specimen preservation methods No treatment

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=spiders_macaronesia_azores